Sources

1600s
1619 —

Guasco, Michael. “The Misguided Focus on 1619 as the Beginning of Slavery in the U.S. Damages Our Understanding of American History.” Smithsonian Magazine, Smithsonian Magazine, 13 Sept. 2017, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/misguided-focus-1619-beginning-slavery-us-damages-our-understanding-american-history-180964873.

1644 —

“BLACKS BEFORE THE LAW IN COLONIAL MARYLAND.” Maryland State Archives, Maryland State Archives, 14 Nov. 2000, msa.maryland.gov/msa/speccol/sc5300/sc5348/html/chap3.html.

1700s
1704 —

Waxman, Olivia. “How the U.S. Got Its Police Force.” Time, Time USA, LLC, 18 May 2017, time.com/4779112/police-history-origins.

Hassett-Walker, Connie. “The Racist Roots of American Policing: From Slave Patrols to Traffic Stops.” The Conversation, 4 June 2019, theconversation.com/the-racist-roots-of-american-policing-from-slave-patrols-to-traffic-stops-112816.

1705 —

“Slavery and the Making of America . Timeline | PBS.” Thirteen, Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2004, www.thirteen.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1705.html.

“Africans in America/Part 1/Virginia’s Slave Codes.” PBS, 1998, www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p268.html.

1735 —

London, The Linnean Society Of. “Linnaeus and Race.” The Linnean Society, 24 May 2021, www.linnean.org/learning/who-was-linnaeus/linnaeus-and-race.

1775 —

“Africans in America/Part 3/Founding of Pennsylvania Abolition Society.” PBS, 1998, www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p249.html.

“Pennsylvania Abolition Society.” Pennsylvania Abolition Society, www.paabolition.org. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

1790 —

Howard, L. “Some Facts About London’s Role in Insuring the Slave Trade.” Insurance Journal, 20 June 2020, www.insurancejournal.com/news/international/2020/06/19/572859.htm.

1800s
1808 —

History.com Editors. “Congress Abolishes the African Slave Trade.” HISTORY, 1 Mar. 2021, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-abolishes-the-african-slave-trade.

1840s —

Ralph, Michael, and William Rankin. “Decoder: The Slave Insurance Market.” Foreign Policy, 16 Jan. 2017, foreignpolicy.com/2017/01/16/decoder-slave-insurance-market-aetna-aig-new-york-life.

1863 —

“What Is Juneteenth? – Juneteenth World Wide Celebration.” Juneteenth, www.juneteenth.com/history. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

“Emancipation Proclamation.” HISTORY, 17 June 2021, www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/emancipation-proclamation.

1865 —

History.com Editors. “Black Codes.” HISTORY, 21 Jan. 2021, www.history.com/topics/black-history/black-codes.

1875 —

Wolff, Megan. “The Myth Of The Actuary: Life Insurance And Frederick L. Hoffman’s Race Traits And Tendencies Of The American Negro.” NCBI, 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497788.

“U.S. Senate: Landmark Legislation: Civil Rights Act of 1875.” United States Senate, 2 Jan. 2020, www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/CivilRightsAct1875.htm.

Wright-Mendoza, Jessie. “How Insurance Companies Used Bad Science to Discriminate.” JSTOR Daily, 18 Feb. 2019, daily.jstor.org/how-insurance-companies-used-bad-science-to-discriminate.

1880 —

Wolff, Megan. “The Myth Of The Actuary: Life Insurance And Frederick L. Hoffman’s Race Traits And Tendencies Of The American Negro.” NCBI, 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497788.

Ekuonline. “The History of Policing in the United States, Part 1.” EKU Online, 20 Aug. 2021, ekuonline.eku.edu/blog/police-studies/the-history-of-policing-in-the-united-states-part-1.

Waxman, Olivia. “How the U.S. Got Its Police Force.” Time, Time USA, LLC, 18 May 2017, time.com/4779112/police-history-origins.

Hassett-Walker, Connie. “The Racist Roots of American Policing: From Slave Patrols to Traffic Stops.” The Conversation, 4 June 2019, theconversation.com/the-racist-roots-of-american-policing-from-slave-patrols-to-traffic-stops-112816.

1890 —

Law Library of Louisiana. “LibGuides: Literacy Tests: Louisiana’s Legal Barriers.” The Law Library of Louisiana, 2021, lasc.libguides.com/c.php?g=940581&p=6825590.

Cianci Salvatore, Susan, et al. “Civil Rights in America: Racial Voting Rights.” National Park Service, National Historic Landmarks Program, 2009, www.nps.gov/subjects/tellingallamericansstories/upload/CivilRights_VotingRights.pdf.

1896 —

Wolff, Megan. “The Myth Of The Actuary: Life Insurance And Frederick L. Hoffman’s Race Traits And Tendencies Of The American Negro.” NCBI, 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497788.

1900s
1900 —

Maloney, Thomas. “African Americans in the Twentieth Century.” Economic History Association, eh.net/encyclopedia/african-americans-in-the-twentieth-century. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

Johnson, James. “The Black National Anthem •.” Blackpast, 10 June 2019, www.blackpast.org/black-past-features/black-national-anthem.

1910 —

Brown, DeNeen. “Remembering ‘Red Summer,’ When White Mobs Massacred Blacks from Tulsa to D.C.” History, 4 May 2021, www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/remembering-red-summer-white-mobs-massacred-blacks-tulsa-dc.

Garrison, Arthur. “Your View: A History of White Race Riots in America.” The Morning Call, 12 June 2020, www.tribpub.com/gdpr/mcall.com.

“Ku Klux Klan.” HISTORY, 20 Apr. 2021, www.history.com/topics/reconstruction/ku-klux-klan.

1914 —

Bryan, Charles A., FCAS. “100 Years of Expertise, Insight, and Solutions - A History of the Casualty Actuarial Society”. 2014, https://www.casact.org/sites/default/files/2021-03/Centennial_Book_Complete.pdf.

1930 —

“A ‘Forgotten History’ Of How The U.S. Government Segregated America.” NPR, 3 May 2017, choice.npr.org/index.html?origin=https://www.npr.org/2017/05/03/526655831/a-forgotten-history-of-how-the-u-s-government-segregated-america.

Madrigal, Alexis. “The Racist Housing Policy That Made Your Neighborhood.” The Atlantic, 27 July 2021, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/05/the-racist-housing-policy-that-made-your-neighborhood/371439.

1938 —

Kickler, Troy. “Asa Spaulding (1902–1990).” North Carolina History Project, 7 Mar. 2016, northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/asa-spaulding-1902-1990.

1944 —

Blakemore, Erin. “How the GI Bill’s Promise Was Denied to a Million Black WWII Veterans.” HISTORY, 20 Apr. 2021, www.history.com/news/gi-bill-black-wwii-veterans-benefits.

Joseph Thompson, Mississippi State University. “The Blinding of a WWII Vet Opened America’s Eyes to the Evil of Jim Crow.” Military Times, 10 Nov. 2019, www.militarytimes.com/military-honor/salute-veterans/2019/11/10/the-gi-bill-shouldve-been-race-neutral-politicos-made-sure-it-wasnt.

“The Impact of Structural Racism on Black Americans (Report).” Catalyst, 15 June 2021, www.catalyst.org/research/structural-racism-black-americans.

Barr, Andrew, et al. “YOU CAN’T HANDLE THE TRUTH: THE EFFECTS OF THE GI BILL ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND EARNINGS.” Syracuse University Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public Affairs, www.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/econ/seminars/Paper%20-%20Sacerdote.pdf. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

1946 —

“Records of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights Record Group 220 | Harry S. Truman.” Harry S. Truman Library Museum, www.trumanlibrary.gov/library/federal-record/records-presidents-committee-civil-rights-record-group-220. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

“To Secure These Rights | Harry S. Truman.” Harry S. Truman Library Museum, www.trumanlibrary.gov/library/to-secure-these-rights. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

1964 —

Heen, Mary. “Ending Jim Crow Life Insurance Rates.” Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy, 2009, scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1041&context=njlsp.

“Civil Rights Act of 1964.” HISTORY, 25 Jan. 2021, www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act.

1964 —

Mbm. “The Consequences of the 1960’s Race Riots Come Into View.” AfricanAmerica.Org, 30 Dec. 2004, www.africanamerica.org/topic/the-consequences-of-the-1960s-race-riots-come-into-view.

“Why People Rioted After Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Assassination.” HISTORY, 17 June 2021, www.history.com/news/mlk-assassination-riots-occupation.

Garrison, Arthur. “Your View: A History of White Race Riots in America.” The Morning Call, 12 June 2020, www.tribpub.com/gdpr/mcall.com.

1968 —

“History of Fair Housing - HUD | HUD.Gov / U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).” U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/aboutfheo/history. Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

Capps, Kriston. “How the Fair Housing Act Failed Black Homeowners.” Bloomberg, 11 Apr. 2018, www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-11/50-years-after-the-fair-housing-act-redlining-persists.

2000s
2000 —

The Poynter Institute. “Maligned in Black and White: Southern Newspapers Played a Major Role in Racial Violence. Do They Owe Their Communities an Apology?” Poynter, 1 Sept. 2020, www.poynter.org/maligned-in-black-white.

2015 —

Feltner, Tom, and Douglas Heller. “High Price of Mandatory Auto Insurance in Predominantly African American Communities.” Consumer Federation of America, Nov. 2015, consumerfed.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/151118_insuranceinpredominantlyafricanamericancommunities_CFA.pdf.

ProPublica. “Minority Neighborhoods Pay Higher Car Insurance Premiums Than White Areas With the Same Risk.” ProPublica, 29 Feb. 2020, www.propublica.org/article/minority-neighborhoods-higher-car-insurance-premiums-white-areas-same-risk.

2019 —

“H.R.1270 - 117th Congress (2021–2022): PAID Act.” Congress.Gov | Library of Congress, 2021, www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/1270.

“H.R.1756 - 116th Congress (2019–2020): Preventing Credit Score Discrimination in Auto Insurance Act.” Congress.Gov | Library of Congress, 2019, www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/1756.